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مهندس معدن - آموزش نرم افزار ENVI
 
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چهارشنبه 10 اسفند 1390 :: نویسنده : مهندس معدن

نرم افزار ENVI یكی از نرم افزارهایی است كه برای تفسیر تصاویر ماهواره ای استفاده می شود.نرم افزار ENVI برای کاربران خود قابلیت های آنالیز بی نظیری را فراهم آورده است،که از طریق این پنجره ها قابل دستیابی است. قابلیت های تطابقدینامیکی چند گانه ENVI به آسانی امکان مقایسه بین تصاویر در نمایشگرهای چند گانهرا میسر می سازد

 

نرم افزار ENVI یكی از نرم افزارهایی است كه برای تفسیر تصاویر ماهواره ای استفاده می شود.
قابلیت ها و مزایای نرم افزار ENVI :
یکیاز قابلیت های مهم ENVIکه آن را درمیان نرم افزارهای مشابه جهت پردازش تصاویر بیهمتا نموده است_ این ویژگی است که این نرم افزار تکنیک های باندی(Band-Based) وفایلی (File-Based) را با توابع نرم افزاری توسعه یافته (interactive functions)ترکیب می کند. وقتی که یک فایل اطلاعاتی داخل نرم افزار باز می شود،باندهای آن بصورت یک لیست بصورتی ذخیره می شود که بتوان بوسیله کل توابع سیستم بهآن دسترسی پیدا کرد.



اگر فایلهای گوناگون و متعدد باز شوند باندهای مربوط به انواعمختلف اطلاعات می توانند به عنوان یک گروه پردازش شوند ENVI این باندها را بصورتپنجره های نمایش 8 یا 24 بیتی نمایش می دهند. گروههای پنجره های نمایش Envi شامل یکپنجره نمایش تصویر اصلی(main Image window)؛ یک فایل پنجره بزرگنمایی(zoom window) و یک پنجره نمایش مرورگر(scroll window) می باشد هر کدام از این پنجره ها قابلتغییر از نظر اندازه می باشند
.

نرم افزار ENVI برای کاربران خود قابلیت های آنالیز بی نظیریرا فراهم آورده است،که از طریق این پنجره ها قابل دستیابی است. قابلیت های تطابقدینامیکی چند گانه ENVI به آسانی امکان مقایسه بین تصاویر در نمایشگرهای چند گانهرا میسر می سازد ( (link displays همچنین قابلیت استفاده از استخراج و پیوند همزمانپروفیلهای طیفی-مکانی جهت پردازش اطلاعات ابر طیفی (Hyperspectral) و چند باندی (multispectral) به کاربران راه های جدیدی جهت مشاهده اطلاعات در ابعاد وسیع ومختلف می دهد. نرم افزار ENVI همچنین با داشتن ابزارهای توسعه یافته وپیشرفتهمشاهده و آنالیز اطلاعات برداری و GIS را امکان پذیرمی سازد. قابلیت های استانداردیهمچون Contrast Streching، پلاتهای 2 بعدی از انعکاس امواج (2- dimensional Scatter plots) تلفیق داده ها وباندها تنها تعداد کمی از توابع مهم قابل دسترس برای کاربران ENVI است.

محیط گرافیکی قدرتمند دیداری ENVI بوسیله کتابخانه جامعی ازالگوریتهای پردازشی تکمیل شده است ENVI تمامی توابع پردازش تصویر اصلی بصورت یکمحیط گرافیکی کاربری (Point and Click) شامل می شود . به دلیل وجود همین محیطگرافیکی فعال، استفاده از بسیاری از توابع در این نرم افزار بسیار آسانتر از دیگرنرم افزار های مشابه است توابع انتقال اطلاعات (Data transforms)، فیلتر کردن داده (Filtening)، طبقه بندی (Classification) و ثبت زمینی (registeration) و تصحیحهندسی ابزارهای آنالیز طیفی ، ابزارهای استفاده از اطلاعات رادار و .... ازجمله اینتوابع هستند. برای نرم افزار ENVI محدودیتی از نظر باندهای طیفی که می خواهند موردپردازش قرار گیرند وجود ندارند. بنابراین انواع داده های چند طیفی (multispectrat) و ابر طیفی(Hgperspectral) می تواند به راحتی در ENVI مورد استفاده و پردازش قرارگیرند. همچنین این نرم افزار دارای توابع پیشرفته جهت پردازش و آنالیز انواع دادههای رادار می باشد.

درس گیری ENVI هنگامی وجود دارد که اطلاعات وارده دارایمشکلاتی چون وارد کردن اطلاعات غیر استاندارد ، مشاهده نمودن و آنالیز تصاویر بزرگو فورمتهای نا شناخته ای از اطلاعات (Plugin function ) و جهت آنالیز بوسیلهکاربران استفاده شود. و با پر کردن اطلاعات توسط این کاربران این قابلیت وجود داردکه مشکل برطرف شود. نرم افزار ابزارهای مشخص و لازم را برای پردازش تصویر تحت نظم وترتیب خاصی داراست . همچنین این نرم افزار با داشتن انعطاف پذیری کامل به کاربراناین اجازه را می دهد تا با تدابیر و استرا تژیهای مختلف اطلاعات خود را آنالیز واجرا نمایند.
كاربرد معدنی
داده‌های چندباندی و مختلف سنجش از دور با استفاده از این نرم‌افزار پتانسیل زیادی برای كاربرد در شاخه های مختلف زمین‌شناسی دارند. امروزه دورسنجی و GIS در سنگ‌شناسی، ژئومورفولوژی، زمین‌شناسی ساختمانی، اكتشاف كانسارها و نفت، ژئوتكنیك، اكشتاف آب‎های زیرزمینی و تحقیقات زیست‌محیطی استفاده می شود. برای مطالعه در مورد كاربردهای این دانش در زمین‌شناسی و معدنی می توان به آثار محققانی مثل سیگال و گلیسپای (Seigal and Gillespie, 1980) ویلیامز (Williams, 1993) دراری (Drury, 1987)، گوپتا (Gupta, 2003)، بونهام-كارتر (Bonham- Carter, 1994)، لگ ( Legg, 1995)، سابینز (1997)، جنسن (2000) و پراست (2001) مراجعه كرد. در ادامه به كاربرد سنجش از دور در اكشتاف مواد معدنی پرداخته می شود، كه در بسیاری موارد از نرم‌افزار ENVI جهت تفسیر تصاویر ماهواره‌ای استفاده می شود.

لینک فایل آموزش این نرم افزار در ادامه مطلب می باشد
 

General ENVI Functionality
A Quick Start to ENVI
Brief introduction to the basic functions and graphical user interface of ENVI. Designed for new ENVI users.

Introduction to ENVI
A more comprehensive introduction to basic concepts and key features of ENVI. You should already be familiar with general image-processing concepts.

Introduction to ENVI Zoom
An introduction to basic concepts and key features of ENVI Zoom.


Interactive Display Functions
Introduction to ENVI's display functions and contrast enhancements, and suggestions for further investigating ENVI features. You should already be familiar with general image-processing concepts. New users should refer to the Quick Start or Introduction tutorials before starting this tutorial.

Classification Tools
Classification Methods
Introduction to classification methods using Landsat TM data from Cañon City, Colorado. Learn about unsupervised and supervised classification, post-classification processing (including clump, sieve, and combine classes), and accuracy assessment.

Decision Tree Classification
Introduction to ENVI's Decision Tree classifier. Run the classifier, explore display options, prune your decision tree, modify class characteristics resulting from the tree, and more.
Transform Tools
Landsat TM and SPOT Data Fusion

Introduction to selected ENVI data fusion methods. Learn about data stretching, pixel resizing, and manual and automatic hue-saturation-value (HSV) transforms.

Landsat TM and SAR Data Fusion

More examples of ENVI data fusion methods. Co-register Landsat TM data and ERS-2 SAR data. Apply hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) transforms. Display and compare results. Learn the advantages and disadvantages of data fusion.

Map Tools
Image Georeferencing and Registration

Introduction to georeferencing and image registration in ENVI. Explore image-to-image and image-to-map registration, create image-maps, and perform image sharpening with multi-resolution data. You should already be familiar with general image registration and resampling concepts.

Georeferencing Images Using Input Geometry

In-depth discussion of georeferencing in ENVI, model-based geometric correction using input geometry, required data characteristics, and procedures for successful map registration.

Orthorectifying Aerial Photographs
Introduction to ENVI tools that orthorectify aerial photographs.

Orthorectifying Using Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs)

In-depth discussion of orthorectification tools for IKONOS and QuickBird imagery that use RPCs often provided by the data vendors. Compare an orthorectified image to an uncorrected image, and examine changes produced by the orthorectification process.

Mosaicking in ENVI

Introduction to image mosaicking in ENVI. Pixel-based mosaicking demonstrates ENVI's Virtual Mosaic concept and simple mosaic tool. Georeferenced mosaicking demonstrates ENVI's automatic placement of georeferenced images and cutline feathering. You should already be familiar with basic mosaicking techniques.

Map Composition

In-depth discussion of ENVI's map composition tools. Use ENVI's QuickMap tool to create an image-map with virtual borders. Add a latitude/longitude grid, map key and scale, declination diagram, image inset, and text annotation.


Hyperspectral Tools

Introduction to Hyperspectral Data

Introduction to imaging spectrometry, hyperspectral images, and spectral processing in ENVI. Perform spatial and spectral browsing with AVIRIS data. Compare the results of several reflectance calibration procedures.

Basic Hyperspectral Analysis

Intermediate hyperspectral tutorial. Use AVIRIS data to extract ROIs for specific minerals, compare them to library spectra, and design color composites to best display the spectral information. Analyze 2D scatter plots to locate unique pixels, query the data distribution, and perform simple classification.

Selected Hyperspectral Mapping Methods

Advanced concepts for analyzing hyperspectral images in ENVI. Use AVIRIS data to investigate unique properties of hyperspectral data and how spectral information can be used to identify mineralogy. Perform Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classification. Compare apparent reflectance spectra with continuum-removed spectra. Perform Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) and multi-range SFF, and compare results.

Target Finding With SAM and BandMax

Introduction to ENVI's SAM Target Finder with BandMax wizard. Use this wizard to differentiate planes from an image of a naval air station.

Using SMACC to Extract Endmembers

Introduction to ENVI's SMACC endmember extraction tool. Use this tool to extract endmembers from an image of a naval air station.

Advanced Hyperspectral Analysis

More advanced concepts and procedures for analyzing hyperspectral images in ENVI. Use AVIRIS data to investigate sub-pixel properties of hyperspectral data. Learn advanced techniques for identifying and quantifying mineralogy. Review Matched Filter and Spectral Linear Unmixing techniques.

Hyperspectral Signatures and Spectral Resolution

Compare spectral resolution for several different sensors. Learn the effect of resolution on the ability to discriminate and identify materials with distinct spectral signatures. Compare spectra among Landsat TM, GEOSCAN, GER63, AVIRIS, and HyMap data, and compare to spectra from the USGS spectral library.

Geologic Hyperspectral Analysis

Using HyMap data from Cuprite, Nevada, as a starting point, learn the general methodology and tools to solve a general hyperspectral remote sensing problem. This tutorial does not include specific steps, only an overview of ENVI's hyperspectral processing flow and tools, and how to apply them to a geologic analysis. Refer to the series of hyperspectral tutorials (introductory through advanced) before attempting this tutorial.

Archaeology Hyperspectral Analysis

Using MIVIS data from Selinunte, Italy, as a starting point, learn the general methodology and tools to solve a general hyperspectral remote sensing problem. This tutorial does not include specific steps, only an overview of ENVI's hyperspectral processing flow and tools, and how to apply them to an archaeological analysis. Refer to the series of hyperspectral tutorials (introductory through advanced) before attempting this tutorial.

Vegetation Hyperspectral Analysis

Using HyMap data from Jasper Ridge, California, as a starting point, learn the general methodology and tools to solve a general hyperspectral remote sensing problem. This tutorial does not include specific steps, only an overview of ENVI's hyperspectral processing flow and tools, and how to apply them to a geologic analysis. Refer to the series of hyperspectral tutorials (introductory through advanced) before attempting this tutorial.

Near-Shore Marine Hyperspectral Analysis

Using AVIRIS data from Moffett Field, California, as a starting point, learn the general methodology and tools to solve a general hyperspectral remote sensing problem. This tutorial does not include specific steps, only an overview of ENVI's hyperspectral processing flow and tools, and how to apply them to a near-shore marine analysis. Refer to the series of hyperspectral tutorials (introductory through advanced) before attempting this tutorial.


Radar and Topographic Tools

Basic SAR Processing and Analysis
Introduction to ENVI's tools for processing single-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Display RADARSAT data from Bonn, Germany. Perform contrast stretching and remove speckle using adaptive filters. Perform density slicing, edge enhancement, image sharpening, data fusion, and create an image map.

Polarimetric SAR Processing and Analysis

Introduction to ENVI's tools for analyzing polarimetric radar data. Use SIR-C data to learn about multilooking, image synthesis from complex scattering matrix data, selection and display of polarization and/or multi-frequency images, slant-to-ground range conversion, adaptive filtering, and texture analysis.

TOPSAR Data and DEM Analysis

Display raw TOPSAR data and synthesize P- and L-band data. Examine polarization signatures and create a pedestal height image. For the TOPSAR DEM, generate and overlay elevation contours. Use ENVI's X, Y, and arbitrary profiles (transects) to generate terrain profiles. View a 3D perspective of the DEM. Generate topographic modeling and feature images. (This tutorial replaces the previous "Topographic Tools" tutorial.)

3D SurfaceView and Fly-Through

Introduction to ENVI's 3D SurfaceView and fly-through functions. Overlay an image over a DEM as a 3D surface view. Interactively change the 3D perspective and create 3D fly-throughs. Use the 3D SurfaceView function as an analysis tool.

DEM Extraction Add-On Module - Working With the DEM Extraction Wizard and Tools

This tutorial introduces the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Extraction Module with functionality that enables you to extract elevation data from stereo imagery to create a DEM. A DEM is a raster grid of elevation values that represent a surface.

Programming in ENVI
Introduction to User Functions

Introduction to creating user functions and calling them from the ENVI menu system. Compile and run a simple Band Math user function, and learn how error-handling and tiling routines are incorporated into the user function. This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and that you understand how to write functions and procedures in IDL. You must have ENVI+IDL to program in ENVI.

Introduction to ENVI Plot Functions

Plot functions are user functions that you can add to and call from the Plot_Function menu of any ENVI plot window. Learn how to create a simple plot function. Edit the ENVI useradd.txt file to include the plot function so that you can call it from a plot window menu bar. This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and that you understand how to write functions and procedures in IDL. (You must have ENVI+IDL to program in ENVI; however, the plot functions provided with this tutorial can be viewed with any text editor and installed for use with either ENVI+IDL or ENVI.)


Vector Tools

Linear Feature Extraction with Intelligent Digitizer

This tutorial demonstrates how to use ENVI's Intelligent Digitizer to extract linear features (such as roads, coastlines, lake boundaries, and rivers) as vector data.
Vector Overlay and GIS Analysis

Introduction to vector overlay and GIS analysis in ENVI. Perform stand-alone GIS analysis using ESRI shapefiles. Learn about vector windows, viewing and editing attribute data, point-and-click spatial query, and math/logical query operations. Overlay vectors on images, and perform heads-up digitizing and vector layer editing. Generate new vector layers using math/logical query operations and raster-to-vector conversion of ENVI regions of interest (ROIs) or classification images. Perform vector-to-raster conversion, using vector query results to generate ROIs for extraction of image statistics and area calculations. You should already be familiar with basic GIS analysis concepts.


Miscellaneous

Working with NITF Data

This tutorial introduces common tasks when working with National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) files. Exercises include opening multiple image segment files, viewing NITF metadata, working with TREs and DESes, chipping, and saving NITF files. You will also learn how RPC map information is used in NITF files.

ENVI Feature Extraction with Rule-Based Classification

This tutorial shows you how to use ENVI Feature Extraction to extract rooftops from a QuickBird scene. You will learn how various attributes can help you build meaningful rules in classification. Finally, you will export your classification results to a shapefile.

ENVI Feature Extraction with Supervised Classification

This tutorial shows you how to use ENVI Feature Extraction to extract impervious surfaces from a QuickBird scene using supervised classification. You will learn how to smooth your vector results and save the output to a polygon shapefile. Note: Use this corrected training data file. Note: Please use this corrected training data file [/i]
[b] Multispectral Analysis of MASTER HDF Data

Introduction to the Hierarchical Data Format and analysis of multispectral imagery from the MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensor. Open and read HDF files, and process shortwave infrared (SWIR) and longwave infrared (LWIR) data.

Vegetation Analysis Toolkit

This tutorial introduces Vegetation Analysis using ENVI. ENVI includes a suite of tools designed to help you determine the overall state of different vegetation types from their reflectance properties.
The application-specific vegetation analysis tools in ENVI classify the scene for vegetation analysis specific to agricultural stress, fire fuel distribution, and overall forest health. This method enables you to perform vegetation analysis using tools that guide index selections for a specific outcome.
FLAASH Add-On Module - Atmospherically Correcting Hyperspectral Data Using the FLAASH Module

This tutorial provides an introduction to using FLAASH to atmospherically correct a hyperspectral image. You will display the radiance image, apply an atmospheric correction, and examine the results.
FLAASH Add-On Module - Atmospherically Correcting Multispectral Data Using the FLAASH Module

This tutorial provides an introduction to using FLAASH to atmospherically correct a Landsat 7 ETM+ data set. You will display the radiance image, apply an atmospheric correction, and examine the results.
FLAASH Add-On Module – Preparing ASTER Data for Input Into the FLAASH Module
This tutorial describes how to prepare ASTER Level 1A and Level 1B radiance data for input into the FLAASH Module.




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